美国为什么一直针对中国?中国问题专家马丁-雅克这么说

2020-09-22 09:20     中国日报网

美国为什么把中国的崛起视作“威胁”,想尽办法极力阻挠?在中国日报社新时代大讲堂上,英国剑桥大学前高级研究员、中国问题专家马丁·雅克认为,这是一种帝国主义大国的心理在作祟。长久以来,美国拥有压倒性的全球霸权,“美国天下第一”的想法深刻于一些美国人骨子里。因此,面对中国的崛起,美国的反应就是从各个方面极力阻挠和打压。但是,马丁·雅克犀利指出,历史证明,没有哪个国家可以一直做老大。

马丁·雅克英国剑桥大学政治与国际关系学院前高级研究员

“新时代大讲堂”

英文演讲

《中国崛起是世界和平及发展的有力保障,而不是威胁》(略有删节,中文为译文)

中美早期关系为什么还不错?因为美国认为中国会西化

中国从1978年开始的崛起是在一个相对稳定的国际环境中进行的,而这种发展有一个关键因素,就是中美之间相对良性的关系。

China‘s rise from 1978 took place in a relatively stable international environment。 And at the core of this was the relatively benign relationship between the United States and China。

在这一时期,美国对中国的态度是基于两个基本假设。

There were two fundamental assumptions that underpinned America‘s attitude towards China over this period。 

第一个假设是中国在经济上落后太多,几乎没有可能会挑战或威胁到美国在世界范围内的经济优势地位。

The first was that China was so far behind economically, that it was virtually impossible to imagine China becoming an economic challenger or threat to American economic ascendancy in the world。

第二个因素,也是我认为更重要的因素是,美国认为中国在现代化过程中会西化。

And the second factor and I think a more important factor was that the American belief was that as China modernized, it would westernize。

因为美国的态度基本上是,现代化的过程等同于西化的过程。所以美国的假设是中国会渐渐变得像一个西方国家,看起来像美国一样,比如采用西式的政治体制。

Because remember the American attitude fundamentally was that the process of modernization was also a process of westernization。 So the American assumption was that over time, China would become increasingly look like a western country, look like the United States have, for example, centrally, a western style political system。 

美国想当然地认为,如果中国没有这样发展,那么它的崛起就会走到尽头、碰壁,无法持续。

And the Americans took it for granted that if this didn‘t happen, then China’s rise would come to an end, hit a wall, be unsustainable。

转折发生在2008年金融危机

2008年的西方金融危机打破了美国对中国的这两个假想。转折就从这里开始。这完全出乎意料。

Now, what began to undermine these two American assumptions about China really starts with the financial crisis, Western financial crisis in 2008。 This was the beginning of the turning point。 Now, this was completely unexpected。

自1931年以来,美国还没有经历过这样的金融危机。在这个时期,美国遇到了大麻烦,西方遇到了大麻烦。

America had not experienced a financial crisis like this since 1931。 And America was in big trouble – the West was in big trouble during this period。

说实话,西方一直没有真正从这次危机中恢复过来,经济增长一直疲软,疫情开始之后又是另一番样子。从某种程度来说,西方经济艰难地维持着。

And to be frank, it‘s never really recovered。 Its growth rates are still, until the pandemic which is a different story。 To some extent, the Western economy has been on a life support system。 

与此同时,中国在这期间的情况完全不同。

Meanwhile, China has been in a completely different situation during this period。

中国当然受到了这次危机的影响,但基本上中国继续以和之前差不多的速度增长。

I mean, China was of course affected by it, but basically China continues to grow at more or less the same rate, as it had before。

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